Brain Map and Functions

Basic map of the brain

Brain Map

Reproduced with kind permission from www.neuroskills.com/brain.shtml

 

Frontal Lobes

Function

Observed dysfunction

  • Conscious thought
  • Concentration
  • Perseverance
  • Judgement
  • Attention span
  • Impulse control – self monitoring and supervision
  • Problem solving
  • Organisation
  • Critical thinking
  • Forward thinking
  • Ability to feel and express emotion
  • Empathy
  • Memory for habits and motor activities
  • Paralysis
  • Difficulty in sequencing (Inability to plan a sequence of complex movements need to complete multi-stepped tasks)
  • Loss of spontaneity in interacting with others
  • Loss of flexibility in thinking
  • Perseveration (persistence of a single thought)
  • Difficulty attending (Inability to focus on task)
  • Emotionally labile (mood changes)

 For more information see: http://www.health.qld.gov.au/abios/asp/bfrontal.asp

Parietal Lobes

Function

Observed Dysfunction

  • Visual attention
  • Touch perception
  • Monitors sensation and body position
  • Control reading
  • Face recognition
  • Understanding time
  • Goal directed voluntary movements
  • Manipulation of objects
  • Inability to attend to more than one object at a time
  • Anomia (Inability to name an object)
  • Agraphia (Inability to locate the words for writing)
  • Alexia (Reading difficulties)
  • Difficulty drawing
  • Difficulty in distinguishing left from right
  • Dyscalculia (difficulty with mathematics
  • Apraxia (Lack of awareness of certain body parts and/or surrounding space)
  • Inability to focus visual attention
  • Difficulties with hand-eye coordination

 For more information see: http://www.health.qld.gov.au/abios/asp/bparietal.asp

 

Occipital Lobes

Function

Observed Dysfunction

  • Receives visual information
  • Interprets colour, shape, distance
  • Visual field deficits
  • Difficulty locating objects
  • Colour Agnosia (difficulty identifying colour)
  • Production of hallucinations
  • Visual illusions
  • Inability to recognize words (word blindness)
  • Difficulty recognizing drawn objects
  • Movement Agnosia (inability to recognize movement of an object)
  • Difficulty reading and writing

 For more information see: http://www.health.qld.gov.au/abios/asp/boccipital.asp

 

Temporal Lobes

Function

Observed Dysfunction

  • Memory and new learning
  • Receives auditory messages
  • Understands spoken language and rhythm
  • Controls how things are ordered and categorized
  • Some visual perception
  • Prosopagnosia (difficulty in recognizing faces)
  • Wernicke’s Aphasia (difficulty in understanding spoken words)
  • Disturbance with selective attention to what we see and hear
  • Difficulty with identification of and verbalization about objects
  • Short-term memory loss
  • Interference with long term memory
  • Increased or decreased interest in sexual behaviour
  • Inability to categorize objects
  • Persistent talking (right lobe damage)
  • Increased aggressive behaviour

 For more information see: http://www.health.qld.gov.au/abios/asp/btemporal.asp

 

Brain Stem

Function

Observed Dysfunction

  • Breathing
  • Heart Rate
  • Swallowing
  • Startle Response (reflexes to seeing and hearing)
  • Autonomic Nervous system (sweating, blood pressure, digestion, temperature)
  • Affects level of alertness
  • Ability to sleep
  • Vestibular function (sense of balance)
  • Decreased vital capacity
  • Dysphagia (swallowing)
  • Difficulty with balance and movement
  • Vertigo (dizziness and nausea)
  • Insomnia, sleep apnoea (sleeping difficulties)

 For more information see: http://www.health.qld.gov.au/abios/asp/bbrain_stem.asp

 

Cerebellum

Function

Observed Dysfunction

  • Coordination
  • Balance and equilibrium
  • Asynergia (Loss of coordination of motor movements)
  • Dysmetria (inability to judge distance and when to stop)
  • Adiadochokinesia (inability to perform rapid alternating movements)
  • Intention tremor
  • Abnormal/ataxic gait (staggering wide based walking)
  • Tendency to fall
  • Hypotonia (weak muscles)
  • Dysphonia (slurred speech)
  • Nystagmus (abnormal eye movements)
  • Loss of ability to coordinate fine movements

 For more information see: http://www.health.qld.gov.au/abios/asp/bcerebellum.asp

These resources were accurate on 3rd February 2009. If you have any questions or wish to update the information, please contact